10-th Form. Reading Comprehension
I. Read the text and write T (true) or F(false) for each of the statements below: (10 points)
The Language of Pheromones
Pheromones are chemicals that animals, including insects, produce. Plants also produce pheromones. Studies show that flowers use pheromones to attract bees. Pheromones play a very important role in the natural world. For many creatures, life would not be possible without pheromones.
Moths are one insect that could not survive without pheromones. Moths have poor eyesight, and most species cannot use sound to communicate. Instead, they communicate through pheromones. Female moths, for example, release pheromones from their legs and wings. A male moth can identify female moth pheromones from as many as five miles away. And because the pheromones don’t wear off for several hours, male moths have enough time to find the female and breed.
Ants have different pheromones for different purposes. Like moths, ants use pheromones to find each other. They also use pheromones to find food. When an ant finds food, it takes a piece and returns to the nest. Along the way, it releases a trail of pheromones. Other ants follow the trail to find the food. If something blocks the trail, the ants look for a new way to reach the food. When they find the shortest way, they produce a new trail of pheromones. In this way, pheromones help ants adapt to changes in their environment.
When an ant is hurt or threatened, it produces an “alarm” pheromone. Other ants identify the alarm pheromone and immediately come to help. The more serious the threat, the more alarm pheromones the ant produces. In this way, ants can quickly organize to fight insects hundreds if times their size.
Some species of ants use “trick” pheromones to stir up trouble and confuse their enemies. Fire ants, for example, produce pheromones near the nests of other ants. Those ants become confused and begin to fight each other instead of attacking the fire ants.
Other insects use trick pheromones to imitate another species. In some cases, this protects them from becoming the next course in another insect’s meal. An interesting example is the Large Blue butterfly. During its caterpillar stage, this unusual insect releases a pheromone similar to that of an ant. If ants find a Large Blue caterpillar in the forest, they carry it home. There, instead of eating it, they care for it – like a family member. The ants do not suspect that anything is wrong, even when the caterpillar doesn’t leave the nest until it has safely turned into a butterfly.
Yet another insect-like creature uses trick pheromones to attract its next meal. The bolas spider, a species common in South America and Africa, releases a pheromone similar to that produced by a female moth. The spider then waits for a male moth to arrive. Instead of finding a female, the unsuspecting moth becomes a tasty meal for the spider.
Because of examples like these, many biologists now believe that pheromones are the true language of spiders and insects. But pheromones are also important to plants and other animals. Their significance in the natural world is undeniable. Some scientists even believe that humans, like other living creatures, use pheromones to attract members of the opposite sex. If that turns out to be true, it might be more accurate to talk about “Love at first smell” than “Love at first sight!”
I. Read the text and circle the letter of the correct answer to complete each sentence. (12 points)
Do you worry about your health? Have you tried to run or walk for exercise and then quit? If you answered yes, you should try a new type of exercise: aquatic exercise. Aquatic exercise is like exercise on land, but you do it in a swimming pool. For example, you can run, walk, or even do a mind-body practice, such as yoga.
More and more people are trying aquatic exercise. In the United States, the number has grown by 25 percent in recent years. People in other countries are also doing aquatic exercise more frequently.
Aquatic exercise has many benefits. First of all, it feels easier than exercising on land. Why? You weigh about 90 percent less in the pool. It is also better for your knees than running or walking
Aquatic exercise feels easy, but you still burn calories. Water is 1,000 times thicker and heavier than air. To move through the water, your body has to work four times as hard. As a result, in the same amount of time, you can burn more calories in the pool than in the gym. That’s because it takes more energy to move in the water.
But what if you are scared of the water?
No problem! There is nothing to worry about. Aquatic exercise is safe and easy to learn. It doesn’t require any special skills. For most kinds of aquatic exercise, you don’t even need to know how to swim.
In fact, most people say they feel more relaxed in the water. They stop thinking about the things that make them anxious. They feel in control of their bodies. The cool, quiet environment makes them feel good. And because they feel so good, they will probably exercise more.
Aquatic exercise is for everyone. You can do it at any age. It can even help people who have been hurt in accidents. With aquatic exercise, they can move in ways they cannot on land. For example, some people who cannot walk on land can walk and even run in the water.
So are you looking for a fun new way to improve your health? Why not try aquatic exercise? Join the millions of people who are burning calories while keeping cool in the pool.
4. When you do aquatic exercise, you don’t need _____________.
a. to know how to swim
b. a swimming pool
5. Most people who try aquatic exercise say it makes them feel __________.
6. Sometimes people who can’t walk on land can _____________ .
a. run in the water
b. walk in the gym
c. weigh more in the water
I. Complete the text by choosing the correct option (A, B, C or D) to fill each gap. (8 points)
In China they have used acupuncture for thousands and thousands of years. But now a school in England (1) ___________ just started to use it with their students. Stanchester Community School is the school (2)__________ they have begun this project. At this school they have a teacher who has spent time living in China, studying acupuncture with Chinese experts. This teacher has (3) _____________ acupuncture to a small group of students at the school (4)_______________2005. These students suffer different problems. A very common problem that the students have (5) __________ stress, usually stress caused by exams or homework. People (6) ____________ suffer from stress often have headaches, backache, or stomach ache.
The students all say that they enjoy the treatment and they say that it has (7) ____________ helped them a lot. It makes them feel good and relaxed. In fact, many of the students also say that now they have started to sleep really well. Let’s hope that the students haven’t started to sleep in class (8)____________!
|Іі етап Всеукраїнської олімпіади з англійської мови (2011 р.)|
А, В, С, or D, or on your answer sheet write True if the statement is true or False if it is false
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