Читання 10 клас Text One icon

Читання 10 клас Text One

НазваниеЧитання 10 клас Text One
Дата конвертации02.11.2012
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Читання 10 клас

Text One: The largest lake in the western United States is the Great Salt Lake, an inland saltwater lake in northwestern Utah, just outside the state capital of Salt Lake City. Rivers and streams feed into the Great Salt Lake, but none drain out of it; this has a major influence on both the salt content and the size of the lake. Although the Great Salt Lake is fed by freshwater streams, it is actually saltier than the oceans of the world. The salt comes from the more than two million tons of minerals that flow into the lake each year from the rivers and creeks that feed it. Sodium and chloride — the components of salt — comprise the large majority of the lake's mineral content.

The Great Salt Lake can vary tremendously from its normal size of 1,700 square miles, depending on long term weather conditions. During periods of heavy rains, the size of the lake can swell tremendously from the huge amounts of water flowing into the Sake from its feeder rivers and streams; in 1980 the lake even reached a size of 2,400 square miles. During periods of dry weather, the size of the lake decreases, sometimes drastically, due to evaporation.

1. The passage is NOT telling about...

a) the location of the lake; b) the formation of the lake; c) the reasons for saltiness; d) the size of the lake.

2. The word «drain» in line 2 means:

a) walk; b) stop; c) flow; d) cross.

3. According to the passage, the size of the lake depends on...

a) one reason; b) two reasons; c) three reasons; d) four reasons.

4. It may be inferred from the passage that...

a) the water leaves the lake through some underground passages; b) the water evaporates intensively from the surface;

c) the water only feeds the lake without leaving it; d) there is no water at all but a saline and mineral solution.

5. The word «drastically» in line 10 may be best replaced with...

a) immediately; b) thoroughly; c) to a critical extent; d) weakly.

6. The lake is salty because...

a) salty rivers flow into it; b) its bottom is made of salt;

c) salt is not carried out of the lake; d) it is a part of an ocean.

Text Two: Probably the most recognized boardgame around the world is the game of Monopoly. In this game, players vie for wealth by buying, selling, and renting properties; the key to success in the game, in addition to a bit of luck, is for a player to acquire monopolies on clusters of properties in order to force opponents to pay exorbitant, rents and fees. Although the game is now published in countless languages and versions, with foreign locations and place names appropriate to the target language adorning its board, the beginnings of the game were considerably more humble. The game was invented in 1933 by Charles Darrow, during the height of the Great Depression. Darrow, who lived in Germantown, Pennsylvania, was himself unemployed during those difficult financial times. He set the original game not as might be expected in his hometown of Germantown, but in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the site of numerous pre-Depression vacations, where he walked along the Boardwalk and visited at Park Place. Darrow made the first games by hand and sold them locally until Parker Brothers purchased the rights to Monopoly in 1935 and took the first steps toward the mass production of today.

7. The passage implies that Monopoly came to life because its inventor...

a) was a professional boardgame designer; b) was asked to create something of the kind;

c) inherited the game from his parents; d) had a lot of spare time.

8. The word «vie» in line 1 is closest in meaning to...

a) work; b) play; c) compete; d)give up.

9. The game of Monopoly…

a) at first was not very popular; b) won immediate recognition around the world;

c) was wide-known before its mass production; d) was stolen by Parker Brothers in 1935.

10. One can make a conclusion that the game...

a) looks the same as before; b) was originally set in Germantown;

c) has been very profitable; d) is a business failure.

11. The word «site» in line 8 most probably refers to...

a) location; b) web-site; c) time; d) popularity.

12. The passage implies that the first game sets...

a) were sold through a network of distributors; b) were not difficult to buy;

c) required much space for production; d) were produced manually.

Text Three : A supernova occurs when all of the hydrogen in the core of a huge star is transformed to iron and explodes. All stars die after their nuclear fuel has been exhausted. Stars with little mass die gradually, but those with relatively large mass die in a sudden explosion, a supernova. The sudden flash of light can then be followed by several weeks of extremely bright light, perhaps as much light as twenty million stars. Supernovas are not very common; they occur about once every hundred years in any galaxy, and in 1987 a supernova that could be seen by the naked eye occurred in the Magellan Cloud, a galaxy close to the Milky Way. Scientists periodically detect supernova in other galaxies; however, no supernovas have occurred in the Milky Way (the galaxy that includes the Earth) since 1604. One very impressive supernova occurred in the Milky Way on July 4,1054. There was a great explosion followed by three months of lighted skies, and historical chronicles of the time were full of accounts and unusual explanations for the misunderstood phenomenon — many people believed that it meant that the world was coming to an end.

13. The passage mainly deals with the problems of...

a) astronautics; b) astrology; c) astronomy; d) astrobiology.

14. The word «core» in line 1 most probably means...

a) surface; b) edge; c) sphere; d) heart.

15. The process of becoming a supernova involves...

a) a metal turning into a gas; b) a gas turning into a metal;

c) a metal turning into a liquid; d) a gas turning into a liquid.

16. The last supernova in our galaxy occurred...

a) in 1054; b) in 1604; c) in 1987; d) three months ago.

17. The word «gradually» in line 3 can be best replaced with...

a) step by step; b) side by side; c) face to face; d) heart to heart.

18. According to the passage, seeing a supernova is...

a) rather special; b) nothing special; c) an exclusive scientific event; d) the end of the world.

Text Four: IQ, or Intelligence Quotient, is defined as the ratio of a patron's mental age to chronological age, with the ratio multiplied by 100 to remove the decimal. Chronological age is easily determined; mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test and is not so simple to define. In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individual's ability to perform intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving. These intellectual operations are considered to represent intelligence. In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus as to which types of intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence. Furthermore, it has been impossible to devise a test without cultural bias, which is to say that any IQ tests so far proposed have been shown to reflect the culture of the test makers. Test takers from that culture would, it follows, score higher on such a test than test takers from a different culture with equal intelligence.

19. The passage is about...

a) calculating IQ; b) intelligence; c) advantages and disadvantages of IQ tests; d) advantages and disadvantages of

different cultures.

20. The word «ratio» in line 1 means the result of...

a) dividing; b) subtracting; c) multiplying; d) adding .

21. IQ tests are designed to...

a) determine the level of a person's literacy; b) find how clever a person is; c) define a person's cultural level;

d) admit a person to a college or university.

22. There is a problem in defining...

a) intelligence; b) culture; c) knowledge; d) power.

23. The word «consensus» in line 5 may be best replaced with...

a) dedication; b) agreement; c) answer; d) argument.

24. According to the passage, the results of IQ tests are...

a) always true; b) never true; c) sometimes true; d) not important.

Text Five: For a century before the Erie Canal was built, there was much discussion among the general population of the Northeast as to the need for connecting the waterways of the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. A project of such monumental proportions was not going to be undertaken and completed without a supreme amount of effort.

The man who was instrumental in accomplishing the feat that was the Erie Canal was Dewitt Clinton. As early as

1812, he was in the nation's capital petitioning the federal government for financial assistance on the project, emphasizing what a boon to the economy of the country the canal would be; his efforts with the federal government, however, were not successful. In 1816, Clinton asked the New York State Legislature for the funding for the canal, and this time he did succeed. A canal commission was instituted, and Clinton himself was made head of it. One year later, Clinton was elected governor of the state, and soon after, construction of the canal was started.

The canal took eight years to complete, and Clinton was on the first barge to travel the length of the canal, the Seneca Chief, which departed from Buffalo on October 26, 1825, and arrived in New York City on November 4. Because of the success of the Erie Canal, numerous other canals were built in other parts of the country.

25. According to the passage, the first ideas of the canal came as long ago as in...

a) dedication; b) agreement; c) answer; d) argument.

26. The word «feat» in line 3 most probably refers to...

a) intelligence; b) faith; c) heroism; d) indifference.

27. The passage implies that Dewitt Clinton must have been...

a) a persistent person; b) a smart engineer; c) a good governor; d) an experienced sailor.

28. The passage does NOT tell about...

a) the location of the canal; b) the head of the project;

c) the cost of construction; d) the amount of time for construction.

29. The word «boon» in line 7 is closest in meaning to...

a) benefit; b) blow; c) price; d)toil.

30. It can be inferred from the passage that nowadays the US has...

a) a museum of Dewitt Clinton; b) many artificial waterways; c) fast barges on the canals; d) better federal laws.



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