Читання 11 клас Text 1 icon

Читання 11 клас Text 1

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Дата конвертации02.11.2012
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Читання 11 клас

Text 1: The extinction of many species of birds has undoubtedly been hastened by modern man; since 1600 it has been estimated that approximately 100 bird species have become extinct over the world. In North America, the first species known to be annihilated was the great auk, a flightless bird that served as an easy source of food and bait for Atlantic fishermen through the beginning of the nineteenth century.

Shortly after the great auk's extinction, two other North American species, the Carolina parakeet and the passenger pigeon, began dwindling noticeably in numbers. The last Carolina parakeet and the last passenger pigeon in captivity both died in September 1914. In addition to these extinct species, several others such as the bald eagle, the peregrine falcon, and the California condor are today recognized as endangered; steps are being taken to prevent their extinction.

1. The number of bird species that have become extinct in the United States since 1600 most probably is:

a) more than 100; b) exactly 100; c) less than 100; d) exactly three.

2. The passage implies that the great auk disappeared:

a) before 1600; b) in the 1600's; c) in the l800's; d) in the last fifty years.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the great auk was killed because:

a) it was eating the fishermen's catch; b) fishermen wanted to eat it;

c) it flew over fishing areas; d) it baited fishermen.

4. The paragraph following this passage most probably discusses:

a) what is being done to save endangered birds; b) what the bald eagle symbolizes to Americans;

c) how several bird species became endangered; d) other extinct species.

Text 2: Checks and balances are an important concept in the formation of the U.S. system of government as presented in the Constitution of the United States. Under this conception of government, each branch of government has built-in checks and limitations placed on it by one or more different branches of govern­ment in order to ensure that any one branch is not able to usurp total dominance over the government. Under the Constitution, the United States has a tripartite government, with power divided equally among the branches: the presidency, the legislature, and the judiciary. Each branch is given some authority over the other two branches to balance the power among the three branches. An example of these checks and balances is seen in the steps needed to pass a law. Congress can pass a law with a simple majority, but the president can veto such a law. Con­gress can then counteract the veto with a two-thirds majority. However, even if Congress passes a law with a simple majority or overrides a presidential veto, the Supreme Court can still declare the law unconstitutional if it finds that the law is contradictory to the guidelines presented in the Constitution.

5. The expression "dominance over" in line 3 is closest in meaning to:

a) understanding of; b) dispute over; c) authority over; d) rejection of.

6. The word "tripartite" in line 4 suggests that something is:

a) divided into three; b) totally democratic; c) powerfully constructed; d) evenly matched.

7. The "judiciary" in line 5 is:

a) the electorate; b) the authority; c) the legal system; d) the government.

8. The word "counteract" in line 8 is closest in meaning to:

a) vote for; b) debate; c) surpass; d) work against.

9. "Contradictory to" in line 10 is closest in meaning to:

a) in agreement with; b) opposite to; c) supported by; d) similar to.

Text 3: The American flag is the end product of a long evolution. Each of its component parts has its own history. The very first American flag was hoisted in the skies over Boston on January 1, 1776, by the American forces there. This first flag consisted of thirteen red and white stripes representing the number of American colonies. It also included the British Cross of St. George and Cross of St. Andrew. It could be considered rather ironic that these symbols of British rule were included, on the American flag in that the American colonists were fighting for independence from the British. The origin of the stars on the current flag is obscure; that is, the stars could possibly have been taken from the flag of Rhode Island, or they could have been taken from the coat-of-arms of the Washington family. According to legend, this first flag with stars was sewn by Betsy Ross, a Philadelphia seamstress who was famous for her clever needlework. This version of the flag contained thirteen stars and thirteen stripes, one for each of the thirteen colonies battling for independence. The original idea was to add one star and one stripe for each state that joined the new, young country. However, by 1818, the number of states had grown to twenty, and it did not work well to keep adding stripes to the flag. As a result, Congress made the decision to revert to the original thirteen stripes representing the thirteen original colonies and adding a star each time a new state was admitted. This has been the policy ever since.

10. In line 8, the word "seamstress" is used to describe someone who:

a) works at home; b) sews; c) is a part of high society; d) practices medicine.

11. The word "work" in line 12 could best be replaced by:

а) get a job; b) function; c) accomplish; d) make an effort.

12. The word "keep" in line 12 could best be replaced by:

a) continue; b) maintain; c) hold; d) guard.

13. The expression "revert to" in line 12 means:

a) return to; b) add to; c) rejoice over; d) forget about.

14. The word "product" in line 1 is closest in meaning to:

a) goods; b) merchandise; c) banner; d) result.

15. Something that is "hoisted" (line 2) is:

a) created; b) found; c) raised; d) made.

16. The word "ironic" in line 3 could most easily be replaced by:

a) steellike; b) normal; c) unexpected; d) nationalistic.

17. Which of the following is closest in meaning to "obscure" in line 6?

a) Unclear; b) original; c) modern; d) known.

Text 4: The rattlesnake has a reputation as a dangerous and deadly snake with a fierce hatred for humanity. Although the rattlesnake is indeed a venomous snake capable of killing a human, its nature has perhaps been somewhat exaggerated in myth and folklore.

The rattlesnake is not inherently aggressive and generally strikes only when it has been put on the defensive. In its defensive posture the rattlesnake raises the front part of its body off the ground and assumes an S-shaped form in preparation for a lunge forward. At the end of a forward thrust, the rattlesnake pushes its fangs into the victim, thereby injecting its venom.

There are more than 30 species of rattlesnakes, varying in length from $10 inches to 6 feet and also varying in toxicity of venom. In the United States there are only a few deaths annually from rattlesnakes, with a mortality rate of 'less than 2 per cent of those attacked.

18. Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?

a) The Exaggerated Reputation of the Rattlesnake; b) The Dangerous and Deadly Rattlesnake;

c) The Venomous Killer of Humans; d) Myth and Folklore about Killers.

19. According to the passage, which of the following is true about rattlesnakes?

a) They are always ready to attack; b) they are always dangerous and deadly;

c) their fierce nature has been underplayed in myth and folklore; d) their poison can kill people.

20. The word "posture" in line 5 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

a) Mood; b) fight; c) position; d) strike.

21. When a rattlesnake is ready to defend itself it:

a) lies in an S-shape on the ground; b) lunges with the back part of its body;

c) is partially off the ground; d) assumes it is prepared by thrusting its fangs into the ground.

22. It can be inferred from the passage that:

a) all rattlesnake bites are fatal; b) all rattlesnake bites are not equally harmful;

c) the few deaths from rattlesnake bites are from six-foot snakes;

d) deaths from rattlesnake bites have been steadily increasing.

23. The word "mortality" in line 10 is closest in meaning to:

a) percentage; b) illness; c) death; d) survival.

24. The author's purpose in this passage is to:

a) warn readers about the extreme danger from rattlesnakes; b) explain a misconception about rattlesnakes;

c) describe a rattlesnake attack; d) clarify how rattlesnakes kill humans.

Text 5: A hoax, unlike an honest error, is a deliberately concocted plan to present an untruth as the truth. It can take the form of a fraud, a fake, a swindle, or a forgery, and can be accomplished in almost any field: successful hoaxes have been foisted on the public in fields as varied as politics, religion, science, art, and literature.

A famous scientific hoax occurred in 1912 when Charles Dawson claimed to have uncovered a human skull and jawbone on the Piltdown Common in southern England. These human remains were said to be more than 500,000 years old and were unlike any other remains from that period; as such they represented an important discovery in the study of human evolution. These remains, popularly known as the Piltdown Man and scientifically named Eoanthropus dawsoni after their discoverer, confounded scientists for more than forty years. Finally in 1953, a chemical analysis was used to date the bones, and it was found that the bones were modern bones that had been skill fully aged. A further twist to the hoax was that the skull belonged to a human and the jaws to an orangutan.

25. The topic of this passage could best be described as:

a) the Piltdown Man; b) Charles Dawson's discovery; c) Eoanthropus dawsoni; d) a definition and example of a hoax.

26. The author's main point is that:

a) various types of hoaxes have been perpetrated; b) Charles Dawson discovered a human skull and jawbone;

c) Charles Dawson was not an honest man; d) the human skull and jawbone were extremely old.

27. The second paragraph includes:

a) an illustration to support the ideas in the first paragraph; b) a counterargument to the ideas in the first paragraph;

c) an analogy to the ideas in the first paragraph; d) a detailed definition of a hoax.

28. The word "concocted" in line 1 most probably means:

a) issued; b) spoken; c) implemented; d) fabricated.

29. The word "confounded" in line 8 is closest in meaning to:

a) confused; b) prevented; c) determined; d) discovered.

30. The passage does NOT mention about hoaxes in the field of:

a) creating works of art; b) athletic events; c) writing books; d) research work.



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