12.Dialects icon

12.Dialects




Название12.Dialects
Дата конвертации24.12.2012
Размер5.59 Kb.
ТипДокументы
источник
1. /1.Lexicology.txt
2. /10. Doubletes, int. words.txt
3. /11.Main variants of modern English.txt
4. /12.Dialects.txt
5. /12.Variant versus dialect..txt
6. /13. The word.txt
7. /14. Normination and motivation.txt
8. /15. Approaches to study of meaning.txt
9. /16. Linguistic meaning (gr,lx).txt
10. /17. Context.txt
11. /18. Denotation and connataion.txt
12. /19. Semantic changes.txt
13. /2. Germanic languages.txt
14. /20. Elevation and degradation of meaning.txt
15. /21. Metaphor and metonymy.txt
16. /22. Ways of enriching the vocabulary.txt
17. /23. Word-formation.txt
18. /24. Prefixes and suffixes.txt
19. /25. Morphology.txt
20. /25.txt
21. /26. Composition.txt
22. /27. Conversion.txt
23. /28. Word-combinations and phr. units.txt
24. /29.Stylistic stratification.txt
25. /3. Etymology.txt
26. /30. Homonyms, polysemy.txt
27. /31. Synonyms, antonyms.txt
28. /32. Hyponyms and hyperonyms.txt
29. /4. Native word-stock.txt
30. /5. Borrowings.txt
31. /6. Celtic borrowings and old Latin.txt
32. /7. Scandinavian borrowings.txt
33. /8. French borrowings.txt
34. /9. Late latin and greek borrowings.txt
Variants, dialects.
-British english (S, N, W, Midland, E)
-wales: 
1. last, dance, chance (Э)
2. girl – O:
3. city- citti
-scottish:
Bird-bird, hurt-hurt, hat-hat, house-hus, note and not – not, through – shru
-irish:
Bird-bird, fur-fir, pole-pol, knows-noz, city-cidi, mother-maer

DIALECTS
 Cheschire-n, Yorkshire-n, Kentish-s
Cockney: wery-very, well-vel
Hart-art? Day, face, rain –ai, head-loaf of bread

DIALECTS in English
Standard English - the official language of Great Britain taught at schools and universities, used by the press, the radio and the television and spoken by educated people may be defined as that form of English which is current and literary, substantially uniform and recognized as acceptable wherever English is spoken or understood. Its vocabulary is contrasted to dialect words or dialectisms belonging to various local dialects. Local dialeсts - are varieties of the English language peculiar to some districts and having no normalized literary form. Regional varieties possessing a literary form are called variants.In Great Britain there are two variants, Scottish English and Irish English, and five main groups of dialects: Northern, Midland, Eastern, Western and Southern. Every group contains several (up to ten) dialects. One of the best known Southern dialects is Cockney, the regional dialect of London. This dialect exists on two levels. As spoken by the educated lower middle classes it is a regional dialect marked by some deviations in pronunciation but few in vocabulary and syntax. As spoken by the uneducated, Cockney differs from Standard English in pronunciation, vocabulary, morphology and syntax. Dialects are now chiefly preserved in rural communities, in the speech of elderly people. Their boundaries have become less stable than they used to be; the distinctive features are tending to disappear with the shifting of population due to the migration of working-class families in search of employment and the growing influence of urban life over the countryside. Dialects are said to undergo rapid changes under the pressure of Standard English taught at schools and the speech habits cultivated by radio, television and cinema. Words from dialects and variants may penetrate into Standart English.
Cockney
Dialect or accent used among natives of London, esp. of the East End. There are two kinds of ordinary cockney: 1) the variety of Modified Standart speech which is the typical Cockney English of London, as spoken by educated Middle - Class people; 2) the variety of Modified Standart which is also heard in London but which is spoken by the semi - literate and the quite illiterate. The expression “cockney” was a name applied by country people to those who dwelt in cities. In the 17th century the word “cockney” was applied to the inhabitants of London. Cockney English as it was spoken at one time is seldom heard now, except in a certain very limited area of the East End of London. Peculiarities: In pronunciation the cockney is very partial to the following vulgarisms. He consistently drops his h’s, that is he doesn’t sound the h where it ought to be heard and puts in an h where there is none (ham and eggs - ‘am an’ heggs). The dropping of the g is a frequent vulgarism even among people who are higher up in the social scale: mornin’, goin’. The sound d and t are also frequently dropped as in: an’ (and), I don’ know (don’t). Vowel sound of long i (mine) given to the stressed long a, the sound of oi in cases which require a long i sound and that of ow (how) instead of a long o.: toim - time, plice - place, sow - so, rowd - road.  The differences between the two varieties of English are immediately noticeable in the field of phonetic. All lexical units may be subdivided into general English, Americaniams, Briticisms. the bulk of the vocabulary belongs to general English. In the pair: post - mail the first word is more frequent in Britain, the second - in America. Americanisms - mailbox, supermarket. There may be Lowland (Scottish or Scots, North of the river Tweed), Northern (between the rivers Tweed and Humber), Western, Midland, Eastern, Southern (South of the Thames).
For the most part dialect in literature has been limited to speech characterisation of personages in books otherwise composed in Standard English. The dialect vocabulary is remarkable for its conservatism: many words that have become obsolete in standard English are still kept in dialects, e. g. to and ‘envy’ < OE andian; barge ‘pig’ < OE berg; bysen ‘blind’ < OE bisene and others.
263
According to O. Jespersen, however, dialect study suffered from too much attention being concentrated on the “archaic” traits. “Every survival of an old form, every trace of old sounds that have been dropped in standard speech, was greeted with enthusiasm, and the significance of these old characteristics greatly exaggerated, the general impression being that popular dialects were always much more conservative than the speech of educated people. The Scottish Tongue and the Irish English have a special linguistic status as compared with dialects because of the literature composed in them. Words from dialects and variants may penetrate into Standard English. The Irish English gave, for instance, blarney n ‘flattery’, bog n ‘a spongy, usually peaty ground of marsh’. This word in its turn gave rise to many derivatives and compounds, among them bog-trotter, the ironical nickname for Irishman.The contribution of the Scottish dialect is very considerable. Some of the most frequently used Scotticisms are: bairn ‘child’, billy ‘chum’, bonny ‘handsome’, brogue ‘a stout shoe’, glamour ‘charm’, laddie, lassie, kilt, raid, slogan, tartan, wee, etc.


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