1St-s and style the subject and tasks of stylistics
Stylistics as a science. Branches of stylistics.
Stylistics is a branch of general linguistics. It has mainly with two tasks:
Stylistics – is regarded as a lang-ge science which deals with the results of the act of communication.
There are 2 basic objects of stylistics:
- stylistic devices and figures of speech
- functional styles
Branches of stylistics:
- Lexical stylistics – studies functions of direct and figurative meanings, also the way contextual meaning of a word is realized in the text. L.S. deals with various types of connotations – expressive, evaluative, emotive; neologisms, dialectal words and their behavior in the text.
- Grammatical stylistics – is subdivided into morphological and syntactical
Morphological s. views stylistic potential of grammatical categories of different parts of speech. Potential of the number, pronouns…
Syntactical s. studies syntactic, expressive means, word order and word combinations, different types of sentences and types of syntactic connections. Also deals with origin of the text, its division on the paragraphs, dialogs, direct and indirect speech, the connection of the sentences, types of sentences.
- Phonostylistics – phonetical organization of prose and poetic texts. Here are included rhythm, rhythmical structure, rhyme, alliteration, assonance and correlation of the sound form and meaning. Also studies deviation in normative pronunciation.
- Functional S (s. of decoding) – deals with all subdivisions of the language and its possible use (newspaper, colloquial style). Its object - correlation of the message and communicative situation.
- Individual style study –studies the style of the author. It looks for correlations between the creative concepts of the author and the language of his work.
- stylistics of encoding - The shape of the information (message) is coded and the addressee plays the part of decoder of the information which is contained in message. The problems which are connected with adequate reception of the message without any loses (deformation) are the problems of stylistics of encoding.
Style is depth, deviations, choice, context style restricted linguistic variation, style is the man himself (Buffon). According to Galperin the term ‘style’ refers to the following spheres:
1) the aesthetic function of language
It may be seen in works of art- poetry, imaginative prose, fiction, but works of science, technical instruction or business correspondence have no aesthetic value.
2) synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea
The possibility of choice of using different words in similar situations is connected with the question of style as if the form changes, the contents changes too and the style may be different.
3) expressive means in language
- are employed mainly in the following spheres – poetry, fiction, colloquial speech, speeches but not in scientific articles, business letters and others.
4) emotional coloring in language
Very many types of texts are highly emotional – declaration of love, funeral oration, poems(verses), but a great number of texts is unemotional or non-emphatic (rules in textbooks).
5) a system of special devices called stylistic devices
The style is formed with the help of characteristic features peculiar to it. Many texts demonstrate various stylistic features:
She wears ‘fashion’ = what she wears is fashionable or is just the fashion methonimy.
6) the individual manner of an author in making use
the individual style of speaking, writing must be investigated with the help of common rules and generalization.
Galperin distinguishes five styles in present-day English:
I. Belles Lettres ( беллетристика)
2. Emotive prose
3. The Drama
III. Publicistic Style . Oratory and Speeches
2. The Essay
1. brief News Items (короткие новости)
3. Advertisements and Announcements (объявления)
4. The Editorial ( редакторская статья)
V. Scientific Prose
VI. Official Documents
He didn’t single out a colloquial style. Its created by the work of the author –the result of creative activity.
Arnold classification consists of four styles:
1. Poetic style
2. Scientific style
3. Newspaper style
4. Colloquial style
7 Language of the drama Drama - the language of plays mainly consists of dialogues. The author's speech is in the form of stage remarks. Any presentation of a play is an aesthetic procedure. The language of a play has the following peculiarities:
- it is stylized (retains the modus of literary English);
- it presents the variety of spoken language;
- it has redundancy of information caused by necessity to amplify the utterance;
- monologue is never interrupted;
The first thing to be said about the parameters of this variety of belles-lettres is that the language of plays is entirely dialogue. The author’s speech is almost entirely excluded, except for the playwright’s remarks and stage directions.
The degree to which the norms of ordinary colloquial language are converted into those of the language of plays, that is, the degree to which the spoken language is made literary varies at different periods in the development of drama and depends also on the idiosyncrasies of the playwright himself.
Any presentation of a play is an aesthetic procedure and the language of plays is of the type which is meant to be reproduced. Therefore even the language of a play approximates that of a real dialogue, it will none the less be stylized.
Such wide understanding of style made it one of the thorniest
concepts to be dealt with. It has hundreds of definitions and characterizations, such as ‘the dress of thought’ (S.Wesley), ‘proper words in proper places’ (J.Swift), etc. Linguistic definitions may be grouped in the following way:
1. style as a product of individual choices and patterns of choices among linguistic possibilities (S.Chatman, D.Crystal). This definition treats style as an individual style of an author.
2. style as embellishment of language (M.Murry). From this point of view language and style are separate bodies, style is like trimming on a dress, and users of language can easily do without it. Moreover, style is viewed as something that hinders understanding as the use of stylistic devices may hide the idea.
3. style as a deviation from the norm (E.Sapir, L.V.Scherba)
The notion of the norm mainly refers to the literary language. It is treated as the invariant of the phonemic, morphological, lexical and syntactical patterns in circulation during a given period in the development of the given language. The existence of the norm presupposes deviations from it, as it can be established and perceived only when there are deviations from it.
4. style as the technique of expression (H.Spencer, F.L.Lucas)
The main connotation of this treatment of style is utilitarian. Style is understood as the ability to write and speak clearly, correctly which can be taught, as there are certain rules as to how to speak and write and all deviations from them are regarded as violations of the norm.
5. style as a literary genre (classical style, realistic style, style of romanticism, etc.) In this application of the term, the arrangement of what are purely literary facts is under observation.
6. individual style. The term is applied to the study of peculiarities of a writer’s individual manner of deliberate use of language means to achieve a certain desirable effect.
7. style as a style of language. I.R.Galperin defines a style of language as a system of interrelated language means, which serves a definite aim of communication. One system of language means is opposed to other systems with their aims. So we may speak about the belles-lettres style as opposed to publicistic or the newspaper styles, etc. But still all various definitions have something in common. All of them point to some integral significance, that a style is a set of characteristics by which it is possible to distinguish one author from another or members of one subclass from members of other subclasses.
Poetry. Peculiarities - rhythm and rhyme. As a SD rhythm is a combination of the ideal metrical scheme and its variations governed by the standard.
Its first differentiating property is its orderly form, which is based mainly on the rhythmic and phonetic arrangement of the utterances. The rhythmic aspect calls forth syntactical and semantic peculiarities which also fall into a more or less strict orderly arrangement. Both the syntactical and semantic aspects of the poetic substyle may be defined as compact, for they are held in check by rhythmic patterns. Syntactically this brevity is shown in elliptical and fragmentary sentences, in detached constructions, in inversion, asyndeton and other syntactical peculiarities.
Rhythm and rhyme are immediately distinguishable properties of the poetic substyle provided they are wrought into compositional patterns. The various compositional forms of rhyme and rhythm are generally studied under the terms versification or prosody.
The poetical language remains and will always remain a specific mode of communication differing from prose. The poetic words and phrases, peculiar syntactical arrangement, orderly phonetic and rhythmical patterns have long been the signals of poetic language. But the most important of all is the power of the words used in poetry to express more than they usually signify in ordinary language.
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1. General considerations. In order to get a more or less idea of the word stock of any language, it must be presented as a system, the elements of which are interconnected, interrelated and yet independent. The word stock of a language may be represented as a definite system in which different aspects of words may be singled out as interdependent. A special branch of linguistic science-lexicology - has done much to classify vocabulary. For our purpose, i. e. for linguistic stylistics, a special type of classification, stylistic classification is the most important.
An accordance with the division of language into literary and colloquial, we may represent the whole of the word stock of the English language as being divided into three main layers: the literary layer, the neutral layer and the colloquial layer. The literary and the colloquial layers contain a number of subgroups each of which has a property it shares with all the subgroups within the layer. This common property, which unites the different groups of words within the layer may be called its aspect. The aspect of the literary layer is its markedly bookish character. It is this that makes the layer more or less stable. The aspect of the colloquial layer of words is its lively spoken character. It is this that makes it unstable, fleeting.
The aspect of the neutral layer is its universal character. That means it is unrestricted in its use. It can be employed in all styles of language and in all spheres of human activity. The literary layer of words consists of groups accepted as legitimate members of the English vocabulary. They have no local or dialectal character. The colloquial layer of words as qualified in most English or American dictionaries is not infrequently limited to a definite language community or confine to a special locality where it circulates. The literary vocabulary consists of the following groups of words: 1) common literary; 2) terms and learned words; 3) poetic words; 4) archaic words; 5) barbarisms & foreign words; 6) literary coinages including nonce words.
The colloquial vocabulary falls into the following groups: 1) common colloquial words; 2) slang; 3) jargonisms; 4) professional words; 5) dialectal words; 6) vulgar words; 7) colloquial coinages.
The common literary, neutral and common colloquial words are grouped under the term standard English vocabulary.
Galperin denies the existence of this functional style. He thinks that functional style can be singled out in the written variety of language. He defines the style as the result of a deliberate careful selection of language means which in their correlation constitute this style.
Maltzev thinks that style is a choice but this choice is very often done unconsciously, spontaneously He thinks that the main aim of functional style is to facilitate a communication in a certain sphere of discourse. But the rigid lay outs of business and official letters practically exclude the possibility of deliberate, careful selection. One more example the compression in the newspapers headlines where there is a tendency to abbreviate language.
There's a descrepancy in Galperin's theory. One of the substyles of the publicistic style is oratory which is its oral subdivision. Kuznetz and Skrebnev give the definitions of bookish and colloquial styles. The bookish style is a style of a highly polished nature that reflects the norm of the national literary language. The bookish style may be used not only in the written speech but in oral, official talk.
Colloquial style is the type of speech which is used in situation that allows certain deviations from the rigid pattern of literary speech used not only in a private conversation, but also in private correspondence. So the style is applicable both to the written and oral varieties of the terms "colloquial" and "bookish" don't exactly correspond to the oral and written forms of speech. Maltzev suggests terms "formal" and "informal" and states that colloquial style is the part of informal variety of English which is used orally in conversation.
Fun style(by Galperin) is a system of coordinated, interrelated & interconditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific function of com-n & aiming at a definite effect. Classification:
1 official style, represented in all kinds of of documents.
2 scientific, found in articles, brochures, monographs & other academic publications
3 publicist, covering such genres as essay, public speeches.
4 newspaper style, observed in the majority of materials printed in newspapers
5 belles-lettres style, embracing numerous genres of creative writing. it fulfils the aesthetic function , which fact singles this style out of others & gives grounds to recognize its systematic uniqueness.
Each of the style has 2 forms: written & oral.
Only recently, most style class included:
Poetic style- deals with verbal forms specific for poetry.
Oratoric style- in ancient Greece was instrumental in the creation of “Rhetoric”.
All the mentioned styles are specified within the literary type of the language. Their functioning is characterized by the international approach of the speaker towards the choice of lang-e means suitable for a particular com-ve situation & the official, formal nature of the latter.
^ embraces:1)poetry; 2)drama; 3)emotive prose. B-l style or the style of imaginative literature may be called the richest register of communication: besides its own lan-ge means which are not used in any other sphere of communication, b-l st. makes ample use of other styles too, for in numerous works of literary art we find elements of scientific, official and other functional types of speech. Besides informative and persuasive functions, also found in other functional styles, the b-l style has a unique task to impress the reader aesthetically. The form becomes meaningful and carries additional info. Boundless possibilities of expressing one's thoughts and feelings make the b-l style a highly attractive field of research for a linguist.
The belles-lettres style, in each of its concrete representations, fulfils the aesthetic function, which fact singles this style out of others and gives grounds to recognize its systematic uniqueness, i.e. charges it with the status if an autonomous functional style.
^ Emotive prose came into being rather late in the history of the English literary language. It is well known that in early Anglo-Saxon literature there was no emotive prose. Emotive prose. Emotive prose is a combination of literary variant of the language and colloquial, which is presented by the speech of the characters which is stylized that means it has been made "literature like" and some elements of conversational English were made use of. Emotive prose allows the use of elements of other styles but the author changes them and fulfils a certain function. SDs used: in emotive prose style are represented speech, detached constructions, gap - sentence link.
Middle English prose literature was also educational, represented mostly by translations of religious works from Latin.
Emotive prose actually began to assume a life of its own in the second half of the 15th century when romances and chronicles describing the life and adventures of semi-legendary kings and knights began to appear.
With the coming of the 16th century English emotive prose progressed rapidly. Numerous translations from Latin and Greek played a great role in helping to work out stylistic norms for the emotive prose of that period.
On the whole the emotive prose of the 16th century had not yet shaped itself as a separate style.
The 17th century saw a considerable development in emotive prose.
Another peculiarity of the prose of this period is a rather poorly developed system of connectives.
Imagery, so characteristic of the belles-lettres language style in general, begins to colour emotive prose differently from the way it is used in poetry and plays of the non-puritan trend.
The puritan influence on the language of emotive prose at this time displays what may be called an anti-renaissance spirit. This is shown in the disparagement of mythological imagery.
The writers of the 18th century did much to establish emotive prose as an independent form of literary art.
They considered that, being educated representatives of their society, it was their dity to safeguard the purity of the English language.
Another stylistic feature of the emotive prose of the 18th century is a peculiar manner of conveying the impression that the event narrated actually occurred, that the narrative possessed authenticity.
The 18th century is justly regarded as the century which formed: emotive prose as a self-sufficient branch of the belles-lettres style.
Nineteenth century emotive prose can already be regarded as a substyle of the belles-lettres language style complete in its most fundamental properties.
The general tendency in English literature to depict the life of all strata of English society called forth changes in regard to the language used for this purpose. Standard English begins to actively absorb elements of the English vocabulary which were banned in earlier periods from the language of emotive prose, that is, jargonisms, professional words, slang, dialectal words and even vulgarisms.
Present-day emotive prose is to a large extent characterized by the breaking-up of traditional syntactical designs of the preceding periods. Not only detached construction, but also unexpected ways of combining sentences, especially the gap-sentence link and other modern syntactical patterns, are freely introduced into present-day emotive prose.
10 The Pubicistic Style, its Substyles, and their Peculiarities
The Pubicistic Style treats certain political, social, economic, cultural problems. The aim of this style is to form public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener.
Substyles: The oratory essays, journalistic articles, radio and TV commentary.
Oratory. It makes use of a great hummber of expressive means to arouse and keep the public's interest: repetition, gradation, antithesis, rhetorical questions, emotive words, elements of colloquial speech.
Radio and TV commentary is less impersonal and more expressive and emotional.
The essay is very subjective and the most colloquial of the all substyles of the publicistic style. It makes use of expressive means and tropes.
The journalistic articles are impersonal.
The Newspaper FS, its Ssubstyles and their Peculiarities
To understand the language peculiarities of English newspaper style it will be sufficient to analyse the following basic newspaper features:
1) brief news items;
2) advertisements and announcements;
Brief items: its function is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. The vocabulary used is neutral and common literary. Specific features are:
a) special political and economic terms;
b) non-term political vocabulary;
c) newspaper clichms;
Headlines. The main function is to inform the reader briefly of what the news is to follow about. Syntactically headlines are very short sentences, interrogative sentences, nominative sentences, elliptical sentences, sentences with articles omitted, headlines including direct speech.
Advertisements and announcements. The function of advertisements and announcements is to inform the reader. There are two types of them: classified and non-classified. In classified the information is arranged according to the subject matter: births, marriages, deaths, business offers, personal etc.
English newspaper style may be defined as a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader.
Since the primary function of newspaper style is to impart information, only printed matter serving this purpose comes under newspaper style proper. Such matter can be classed as:
1. brief news items and communiqués;
2. press reports (parliamentary, of court proceedings, etc.);
3. articles purely informational in character;
4. advertisements and announcements.
The most concise form of newspaper informational is the headline. The headlines of news items, apart from giving information about the subject-matter, also carry a considerable amount of appraisal (the size and arrangement of the headline, the use of emotionally colored words and elements of emotive syntax), thus indicating the interpretation of the facts in the news item that follows.
a) Brief news items
The function of a brief news item is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. Newspaper style has its specific vocabulary features and is characterized by an extensive use of: 1. special political and economic terms; 2. non-term political vocabulary; 3. newspaper cliché; 4. abbreviations; 5. neologisms.
The following grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and may be regarded as grammatical parameters of newspaper style: 1. complex sentences with a developed system of clauses; 2. verbal constructions; 3. syntactical complexes; 4. attributive noun groups; 5. specific word order.
b) The headline
The headline is the title given to a news item of a newspaper article. The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows is about.
Syntactically headlines are very short sentences or phrases of a variety of patterns: 1. full declarative sentences; 2. interrogative sentences; 3. nominative sentences; 4. elliptical sentences; 5. sentences with articles omitted; 6. phrases with verbals; 7. questions in the forms of statements; 8. complex sentences; 9. headlines including direct speech.
c) Advertisements and announcements
The function of advertisement and announcement is to inform the reader. There are 2 basic types of advertisements and announcements in the modern English newspaper: classified and non-classified(separate).
In classified advertisements and announcements various kinds of information are arranged according to subject-matter into sections, each bearing an appropriate name.
As for the separate advertisements and announcements, the variety of language form and subject-matter is so great that hardly any essential features common to all be pointed out.
d) The editorial
Editorials are an intermediate phenomenon bearing the stamp of both the newspaper style and the publistic style.
The function of the editorial is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation of certain facts. Emotional coloring in editorial articles is also achieved with the help of various stylistic devices(especially metaphors and epithets), both lexical and syntactical, the use of which is largely traditional.
e) Scientific prose style
The language of science is governed by the aim of the functional style of scientific prose, which is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of existence, development, relations between different phenomena, etc. There are following characteristic features of scientific style:
1. the logical sequence of utterances;
2. the use of terms specific to each given branch of science;
3. so-called sentence-patterns. They are of 3 types: postulatory, argumentative and formulative.
4. the use of quotations and references;
5. the frequent use of foot-note, of the reference kind, but digressive in character.
The impersonality of scientific writings can also be considered a typical feature of this style.
f) The style of official documents
In standard literary English this is the style of official documents. It is not homogeneous and is represented by the following substyles or variants: 1. the language of business documents; 2. the language of legal documents; 3. that of diplomacy; 4. that of military documents.
The main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking. The most general function of the style of official documents predetermines the peculiarities of the style. The most noticeable of all syntactical features are the compositional patterns of the variants of this style.
The over-all code of the official style falls into a system of subcodes, each characterized by its own terminological nomenclature, its own compositional form, its own variety of syntactical arrangements. But the integrating features of all these subcodes emanating from the general aim of agreement between parties, remain the following: 1. conventionality of expression; 2. absence of any emotiveness; 3. the encoded character of language; symbols and 4. a general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncements into one sentence.